TeamSTEPPS Team Assessment Questionnaire and Team Performance Observation Tool (TAQ-TPOT)

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Submitted by National Center... on Oct 10, 2016 - 10:53am CDT

Instrument
Authors: 
Beebe, P.
Bawel-Brinkley, K.
O’Leary-Kelley, C.
Overview: 

“Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety” (TeamSTEPPS™) is a systematic approach to training health care professionals. It was developed by the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) to improve the quality, safety, and the efficiency of health care. Although largely known as a curriculum, the Team STEPPS program has several assessment tools relevant for quality improvement. The TAQ self-report questionnaire and the TPOT observational tool were used together in the study reported here. Additional validity data can be found in cited references. 

The TAQ collects individual team members' perceptions of team foundation, functioning, performance, skills, leadership, climate/atmosphere, and identity in a 43-item questionnaire.  The T-POT is an observational tool used in situ in this study, but is also frequently used in simulation-based training.  It was designed to collect objective observations of team structure, leadership, situational monitoring, mutual support, and communication in 25 behavioral ratings.  Used in concert, these two measures allow the capture of team member concerns and objective information on teamwork processes that can inform focused teamwork training for rapid response teams.  In this validation study, results from 8 teams composed of 27 members demonstrated good internal structure validity for the overall scores, and demonstrates the type of information that can be obtained through this method.

Link to Resources
Descriptive Elements
Who is Being Assessed or Evaluated?: 
Teams
Instrument Type: 
Self-report (e.g., survey, questionnaire, self-rating)
Observer-based (e.g., rubric, rating tool, 360 degree feedback)
Notes for Type: 

The TAQ is a self-report questionnaire. The TPOT is an on-site (in situ) observational tool. 

Source of Data: 
Health care trainees
Health care providers, staff
Notes for Data Sources: 

Team members responding to the T-TAQ (n = 27) were physicians, bedside nurses, resource nurses, respiratory care practitioners, assistant nurse managers, nursing supervisors, and others.  The researcher observed all rapid response teams for scoring the T-POT. 

Instrument Content: 
Reported perceptions, experiences of working relationships, teamwork
Behaviors / skills
Notes for Content: 

All content for these measures was developed by Department of Defense and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality as a part of the TeamSTEPPS initiative.

The TAQ was modified to measure only 7 domains:

  1. Team foundation
  2. Functioning
  3. Performance
  4. Skills
  5. Leadership
  6. Climate/atmosphere
  7. Identity

The questionnaire also contained three demographic questions: job role, tenure in healthcare, and specialty. A comment section was also included. 

The TPOT measures 5 domains:

  1. Team structure 
  2. Leadership
  3. Situational monitoring
  4. Mutual support
  5. Communication
Instrument Length: 

The modified TAQ is 43 items and time length was not specified.  The TPOT is 25 items and the time required will vary with the observed event. 

Item Format: 
The TAQ self-report questions are rated on a 5-point likert-type scale ranging from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5). The TPOT observations are rated on a 5-point likert-type scale ranging from excellent (5) to poor (1).
Administration: 
The TAQ was given to members of the teams that were observed and instructed to mail the anonymous questionnaire back to the researcher. The researcher observed rapid response teams at a teaching medical center. The TPOT was used to rate the observations, but specific administration information is not provided. Full instructions are available at the TeamSTEPPS website.
Scoring: 
The average of items in each subcategory of the TAQ are averaged to form a score for the individual team member. The average of items in each subcategory of the TPOT are averaged to form a score for the team.
Language: 
English
Norms: 
None described.
Access: 
Open access (available on this website)
Notes on Access: 

The measures and more information is available at http://www.ahrq.gov/teamstepps/longtermcare/sitetools/tools.html

Psychometric Elements: Evidence of Validity
Content: 
Content of the tool is based on the TeamSTEPPS framework and was developed by Department of Defense and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) as a part of the TeamSTEPPS initiative.
Response Process: 
None described.
Internal Structure: 
Cronbach’s alpha reliability for the overall TAQ was very high (alpha = 0.98). For more information on the validation of the TAQ, see Baker, Amodeo, Krokos, Slonim, & Herrera (2010). Cronbach’s alpha reliability for the overall TPOT was also very high (alpha = 0.93). For more information on the validation of the TPOT see the study by Baker presented on the AHRQ website.
Relation to Other Variables: 
None described.
Consequential: 
None described.
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