Who is Being Assessed or Evaluated?:
Observer-based (e.g., rubric, rating tool, 360 degree feedback)
Source of Data:
Health care providers, staff
Notes for Data Sources:
Two psychologists trained in and experienced with the OTAS observed teams and rated their performance. 15 clinical content experts from surgery, anesthesiology, and nursing performed qualitative reviews and contributed to refinement of the behavioral exemplars.
Notes for Content:
The OTAS is based on a framework of five constructs:
- Communication: quality and quantity of information exchanged among team members
- Coordination: management and timing of activities and tasks
- Cooperation / Back Up Behavior: assistance provided among members of the team, supporting others, and correcting errors
- Leadership: management and timing of activities and tasks
- Monitoring / Situational Awareness: team observation and awareness of ongoing processes
Some 114 behavioral exemplars are provided to guide raters in their scoring. Example from the Intra-Op, Surgeon form: "Asks team if all prepared to begin the operation."
The one-page tool contains the five constructs, a subset of behavioral exemplars relative to the stage of operation and the subteam, and a rating scale with descriptive anchors. The time required to complete the form is minimal, but it is based on full observation of the procedure. In this study, data were collected from 30 procedures which lasted between 30 and 240 minutes.
Check boxes for whether a particular exemplar was appropriate for the case, and whether or not it had been observed; and a 7-point rating scale (0 - 6) for assessing sub-team performance on the five constructs. A "6" indicated "exemplary behavior: very highly effective in enhancing team function." A "0" indicated "problematic behavior; team function severely hindered."
Two trained raters observed 30 general surgery procedures and independently completed the instrument. Raters were present during the entire operation and had full visual access to the surgical field and team members. A total of nine separate forms are required: three (one per sub-team) at each of three phases of the operation.
Sub-team scores can aggregated for a total team score. This could be done at the operative phase level, or for the total procedure.
Subscription (can be viewed in journal article)
Notes on Access:
Contact the author to obtain all nine forms.